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Kidney and Bladder Problems Detected Before Birth by Ultrasound - The more common diagnoses

Page 5

The more common diagnoses include:

    1. Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (called simply PUJ)

This refers to a narrowing of the ureter at the junction with the kidney causing a blockage of the flow of urine. This increase in the size of the pelvis of the kidney is what is called hydronephrosis.

    1. Multicycstic dysplastic kidney (MCDK)

This term refers to many cysts in an abnormal kidney. It usually occurs because the ureter does not join with the kidney during development and the kidney never really works as normal.

    1. Vesicoureteric junction obstruction (VUJ)

As with the PUJ, but the narrowing is at the lower junction of the ureter with the bladder. Urine is held up in the ureters and the kidneys, causing enlargement of the ureters and hydronephrosis.

    1. Vesicoureteric “reflux” (or simply “reflux”)

This is due to a weakness at the point where the ureter(s) enter the bladder, allowing urine to pass back up towards the kidney.

    1. Posterior Urethral Valves (PUV)

A rare blockage in male infants where the tube below the bladder is narrow and the bladder and both kidneys can be affected.

The problem may affect one or both of the kidneys. If it is mild or moderate the hospital will watch your child’s progress in the out patient clinic.

If the problem is ‘severe’ the hospital will discuss the options with surgical colleagues and an operation may be necessary.

Reference: Mallik M Watson A R Antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities: more detection but less action Pediatr Nephrol 23:897-904 2008

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Content compiled by members of the Children’s Renal & Urology Unit, QMC Campus, Nottingham University Hospitals.

The National Kidney Federation cannot accept responsibility for information provided. The above is for guidance only. Patients are advised to seek further information from their own doctor.

NKF Controlled Document No. 153: The more common diagnoses written: 16/11/2005 last reviewed: 14/11/2020