If you have kidney failure, you need regular monitoring by hospital staff. This leads to better treatment. The effectiveness of your treatment can be assessed using the numbers from the many measurements and blood tests that are taken. Knowing your numbers will help you to:
The NKF recently did a survey of 1500 members in June 2000 to find out what they knew about one of the numbers, haemoglobin - 26% replied
There is still a long way to go before every patient ‘knows their numbers’. This page is to help you understand all your numbers and enable you to discuss them with hospital staff.
You should be told your numbers by hospital staff when you attend for appointment or during a home visit. If not, ask for them. Staff should all be able to discuss your numbers with you.
There are many reasons why one or more of your results may not be within the normal range. It is important that you ask the renal staff to explain to you the reasons why this has happened in your case. Discuss with them the best treatment for you - this will be based on the results of your tests and physical examination and on your individual needs. Don't hesitate to talk to your doctor or the health care team if you have any questions or problems.
Always check the local normal range for the numbers with staff as it may vary between hospitals, and alter the targets for some bloods.
Haemoglobin (Hb) is the substance in red blood cells which carries oxygen around the body. Too low a level of Hb is known as anaemia. Anaemia causes tiredness, shortness of breath and paleness - it may need treatment with iron or with erythropoietin (EPO) injections.
Calcium and phosphate are the most important minerals in your bones. Levels of calcium and phosphate act like a see-saw - if one rises the other falls. Phosphate rises in renal failure and may cause itching. Calcium tends to fall.
Potassium is a mineral that is normally removed by the kidneys and by dialysis. Too high or low a potassium level may cause a disturbance to the rhythm of your heart.
Bicarbonate: The kidney helps to maintain the balance of acid in the body. In renal failure the body retains too much acid and this causes a low level of bicarbonate in your blood.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) becomes very high in renal failure to restore the normal calcium levels. This is one cause of renal bone disease. Phosphate binding tablets (eg Calcichew) and Vitamin D (eg alfacalcidol) help prevent this.
Blood Pressure is the pressure produced by the heart to pump blood around the body. Too high a blood pressure increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes and is treated by blood pressure tablets.
Urea and Creatinine are two of the most important waste products removed by the kidneys. Hospital staff use complicated numbers derived from urea and creatinine numbers to measure dialysis adequacy - URR, KT/V and CC (Creatinine Clearance).
( in >85% of patients)
( in >85% of patients)
|Calcium||Local normal range||Local normal range|
|Phosphate||1.1-1.8 mmol/l||1.1-1.8 mmol/l|
|Potassium||3.5-6.5 mmol/l||3.3-5.5 mmol/l|
|Bicarbonate||20-26 mmol/l||Local normal range|
|Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)||2-4 × Upper limit local normal range||2-4 × Upper limit local normal range|
|Systolic BP||≤140 mmHg||≤130 mmHg|
|Diastolic BP||≤90 mmHg||≤80 mmHg|
|Adequacy||URR ≥65% or KT/V ≥1.2||CC >501/week or KT/V>1.7 for CAPD
(651/week and >2.0 for APD)
|Cholesterol||Under 5.0 mmol/L||Under 5.0 mmol/L|
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Note: This website also contains ‘Know your Transplant numbers’
Supported by an educational grant from Ortho Biotech. Website:-
NKF Controlled Document No. 182, Know your numbers, written 6 November 2001. Last reviewed 6 June 2011.
The National Kidney Federation cannot accept responsibility for information provided. The above is for guidance only. Patients are advised to seek further information from their own doctor.